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Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale

Family :


Hale, Mycotaxon 25: 604. 1986  

Basionym: Lichen caperatus Linnaeus, Sp. PI.: 1147. 1753

ID :


Thallus :

Adnate to loosely adnate, foliose, 5-20 cm in diam., sometimes forming extensive patches, irregularly lobate

Lobes :

Subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 5-13 mm wide, contiguous to somewhat imbricate; apices rotund, crenate, eciliate

Upper Side:

Yellow green to pale yellow, occasionally green-gray (in shade), smooth but becoming rugose and folded with age, dull to somewhat shiny; epruinose and emaculate

Isidia :

Laminal, granular to wart-like, initially in circular soralia but becoming diffuse and confluent; isidia: absent 

Lower Side :

Black centrally, brown and naked peripherally; rhizines: dense to sparse centrally to edge of brown zone, black, simple, sometime brown or white tipped

Medulla :

White with continuous algal layer

Rare, up to 8 mm wide, laminal, sessile; disc: brown; margin: smooth but sorediate sometimes, asci: clavate, 8-spored

Apothecia :

Simple, ellipsoid, hyaline, 15-24 x 8-13 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: weakly bifusiform, 6 x 1 µm

Ascospores :

Upper cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P- ; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major) and atranorin (trace); medulla with protocetraric acid (major) and caperatic acid (minor)

Chemistry :

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